lE. King Michael Kalecki (1899-1970) was one of the most important, and also one of the most underrated, economists of the twentieth century. In the 1930s he made a series of fundamental contributions to macroeconomic theory which anticipated, complemented and in some ways surpassed those of Keynes. Almost entirely self-educated in economics, and influenced rul much by Marxism as by mainstream theory, Kalecki very largely escaped the fatal embrace of pre-Keynesian orthodoxy, which blunted the thrust of the General Theory. Many Post Keynesians, in particular, have found in his work the elements of a convincing alternative to what Joan Robinson -Kalecki's greatest advocate in the English-speaking world - was scathingly to describe as 'bastard Keynesianism' . But Kalecki was never interested in theory for its own sake. He approached economics from a practical perspective, wrote extensively on applied and policy questions, and in the [mal decades of his life turned his attention increasingly to problems of economic development and the management of state socialist economies.